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Battles of the Early Modern Era (1501 - 1800)

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  DATE

Location / Name 

Attackers

Defenders

Victory

1515  

Battle of Marignano

 

22 000 Swiss soldiers and Milanese Allies

Francis I of France and Venetian allies (39 000 French soldiers and allies)

Francis I and Bayard

 

Francis I at Marignano (Alexandre-Évariste Fragonard)

Alexandre-Évariste Fragonard (circa 1780-1850), Francis I at Marignano (Public Domain)

 

1571

Battle of Lepanto

Don John of Austria, papal forces, Spain, Venice, Genoa, Malta and other allies

(208 ships flotilla)

Ali Pacha

(approx. 300 ships, of which about 40 were able to sail away)

Don John of Austria and Allies

 

Fleet formation at the Battle of Lepanto

Fleet formation at the Battle of Lepanto

Source: William Oliver Stevens and Allan Westcott, A History of Sea Power, 1920 (Public Domain)

 

 

 

1588  

The Spanish Armada

 

Duke of Medina Sidonia

130 Spanish ships

Charles Howard / Francis Drake

197 English and Dutch ships

Kingdom of England and Dutch Republic

 

Routes of the Spanish Armada

Map Courtesy of the Department of History, United States Military Academy

 

 

 

1643

Battle of Rocroi

 

Louis II Condé, Duke of Enghien (France)

15 000 soldiers and 7 000 cavalry units

 

Armies of Flanders and Spain

Commander : Francisco de Melo

18 000 soldiers and 9 000 cavalry units

France

 

Battle of Rocroi (19 May 1643)

Map Courtesy of the Department of History, United States Military Academy

 

1683

Battle of Vienna

Jan III Sobieski
(Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth)

30 000-man Polish relief army  + 40 000 troops from the Habsburg army + 60 000 allies
= 130 000 troops

Ottoman army, commanded by Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha

138 000 men

Jan III Sobieski

 

Jozef Brandt (1863), Battle of Vienna

Jozef Brandt (1863), Battle of Vienna, Museum Wojska Polskiego (Public Domain)

 

1690

Battle of the Boyne

 

James II of Ireland

6 000 French and 19 000 Irish Catholics

 

William III of Orange

36 000 English and Protestant soldiers

William III of Orange

 

Jan Wyck (c. 1693), Battle of the Boyne

Jan Wyck (circa 1693), Battle of the Boyne (Public Domain)

 

1704  

Battle of Blenheim

 

Duke of Marlborough (England) and Austrian Commander Eugene de Savoy

Count Camille de Tallard (France) and Elector of Bavaria Maximilian II Emmanuel

England and Austria

 

Battle of Blenheim around noon (13th August 1704)

Battle of Blenheim - the Penetration (13th August 1704)

Maps Courtesy of the Department of History, United States Military Academy

 

 

1709  

Battle of Poltava

 

Charles XII of Sweden

25 000 soldiers

Peter the Great (Russia)

40 000 soldiers

Russia

 

Denis Marten the Younger (1726), Battle of Poltava

Denis Marten the Younger (1726), Battle of Poltava (Public Domain)

 

1745

Battle of Fontenoy

 

Marshall Maurice de Saxe accompanied by Louis XV and 56 000 soldiers

(France)

 

Duke of Cumberland (British), Marshall Konigseck (Austria), Holland and 50 000 English, Hanoverians, Austrian
and Dutch soldiers

 

France

 

Plan of the Battle of Fontenoy (1745)

Plan of the Battle of Fontenoy (1745) [Public Domain]

 

1757  

Battle of Plassey

 

 

Robert Clive
(British East India Company)

3 000 English and Indian soldiers

 

Siraj-ud-daulah (Bengal) and
French East India Company

50 000 soldiers

British East India Company

 

Francis Hayman (c. 1762), Lord Clive and Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey

Francis Hayman (circa 1762), Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey (Public Domain)

 

1759 

Siege of Quebec

(Battle of the Plains of Abraham)

 

James Wolfe (Great Britain), including English, Irish and German soldiers

 

Marquis de Montcalm (France), including French, Canadian and Native soldiers

 

Great Britain

 

Hervey Smith (1797), View of the taking od Quebec on 13th September 1759

Hervey Smith (1797), View of the taking of Quebec on 13th September 1759 (Public Domain)

 

 

 

1760

Battle of Ste Foy (Sillery)

 

Chevalier de Lévis (France), including 6900 French, Canadian and Native soldiers

 

General James Murray (England), including 3500 English soldiers

France

 

George B. Campion (c. 1850), Battle of Sainte-Foy

George B. Campion (circa 1850), The Battle of Sainte-Foy (Public Domain)

 

 

 

 

1760

(September 8th)

 

Capitulation of Montreal

General Jeffery Amherst (Great Britain), including three British armies and 17 000 soldiers

 

Chevalier de Lévis and Pierre de Rigaud, marquis of Vaudreuil and governor of New France (Kingdom of France)

 

Great Britain, British America and Iroquois Confederacy

(P.S.: the Franco-Canadian army decided to burn their flags instead of giving them to Amherst)

 

Capitulation of France in Montreal, New France (1760)

Reddition des Français à Montréal en 1760 (circa 1800) [Public Domain]

 

1775

 

Invasion of Canada

 

Patriots (American Revolution)
1st / 2nd Canadian Regiments

Commanders / Leaders: Philip Schuyler,
Richard Montgomery, Benedict Arnold,
David Wooster, John Thomas, William Thompson and John Sullivan

10 000 soldiers (400 killed, 1500 captured)

Great Britain
British Quebec

Commander: Guy Carleton

700 - 10 000 soldiers
(100 killed, 600 captured)

Great Britain
British Quebec

         
1777

 

Battles of Saratoga

 

General John Burgoyne (England)

7 200 soldiers (1st battle)

6 600 soldiers (2nd battle)

 

Horatio Gates (American Colonial Forces) with the support of Comte de Vergennes (France), Spain and Holland

circa 9 000 - 15 000 soldiers

 

United States of America

 

Battles of Saratoga (June - October 1777)

Source: United States Army Center of Military History (1989).  [Public Domain]

 

1781  

Siege of Yorktown

 

George Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Comte de Grasse

France (12 000 soldiers)

United States (9 000 soldiers)

Charles Cornwallis

Great Britain

Hesse-Kassel

9 000 soldiers

France / United States

 

Siege of Yorktown in October 1781

Source: S.G. Goodrich, A Pictorial History of the United States, Philadelphia: J. H. Butler & Co., 1875, p. 277.

 

 

 

1792

 

Battle of Valmy

 

Duke of Brunswick (Prussia)

35 000 soldiers

 

France

General Kellerman (Middle army) and General Dumouriez (Northern army)

47 000 soldiers

 

French Republic

 

Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse (1835), Bataille de Valmy le 20 septembre 1792

Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse (1835), Bataille de Valmy le 20 septembre 1792, Musée national du château de Versailles (Public Domain)


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